CD34 and α smooth muscle actin distinguish verrucous hyperplasia from verrucous carcinoma

Author(s): Paral KM, Taxy JB, Lingen MW


Objective: This study evaluated the use of stromal biomarkers CD34 and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) to distinguish verrucous carcinoma (VC) from verrucous hyperplasia (VH).

Study design: Thirteen VH, 15 VC, 20 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 16 of uninvolved adjacent stroma specimens were analyzed for α-SMA and CD34 expression by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Stromal α-SMA positivity was observed in 100% (20 of 20) of the SCC and in 93% (14 of 15) of the VC, whereas none of the VH (0 of 13) or adjacent uninvolved stroma (0 of 16) demonstrated α-SMA reactivity. Stromal CD34 positivity was observed in 100% (13 of 13) of VH and adjacent stroma (16 of 16), while 20% (3 of 15) of VC and 11% (2 of 18) of SCC stroma expressed CD34. The SCC and VC groups differed significantly from the VH and uninvolved stroma groups for both α-SMA and CD34 expression (P < .0001).

Conclusions: Stromal CD34 and α-SMA protein expression patterns may aid in distinguishing between VC and VH in challenging cases.

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