The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort

Author(s): Bernard JY, De Agostini M, Forhan A, de Lauzon-Guillain B, Charles MA, et al.


Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.

Similar Articles

Toddler anxiety disorders: a pilot study

Author(s): Warren SL, Umylny P, Aron E, Simmens SJ

Temperament in the first 2 years of life in infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Clifford SM, Hudry K, Elsabbagh M, Charman T, Johnson MH; BASIS Team

Normal development of brain circuits

Author(s): Tau GZ, Peterson BS

High levels of antenatal maternal anxiety are associated with altered cognitive control in five-year-old children

Author(s): Loomans EM, van der Stelt O, van Eijsden M, Gemke RJ, Vrijkotte TG, et al.

Neuroendocrine profile in a rat model of psychosocial stress: relation to oxidative stress

Author(s): Colaianna M, Schiavone S, Zotti M, Tucci P, Morgese MG, et al.

The relation between psychological factors and DNA-damage: a critical review

Author(s): Gidron Y, Russ K, Tissarchondou H, Warner J

The fate and effects of xenobiotics in human placenta

Author(s): Myllynen P, Pasanen M, Vähäkangas K

Racial differences in oxidative stress and inflammation: in vitro and in vivo

Author(s): Feairheller DL1, Park JY, Sturgeon KM, Williamson ST, Diaz KM, et al.

The relationship of ambient ozone and PM(2

Author(s): Glad JA, Brink LL, Talbott EO, Lee PC, Xu X, et al.

Particulate pollutants and racial/ethnic disparity in feto-infant morbidity outcomes

Author(s): Salihu HM, Ghaji N, Mbah AK, Alio AP, August EM, et al.

Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

Author(s): Suglia SF, Staudenmayer J, Cohen S, Enlow MB, Rich-Edwards JW, et al.

Oxidative stress shortens telomeres

Author(s): von Zglinicki T

A new measure of contemporary life stress: development, validation, and reliability of the CRISYS

Author(s): Shalowitz MU, Berry CA, Rasinski KA, Dannhausen-Brun CA

A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing

Author(s): Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, et al.

Maternal cereal consumption and adequacy of micronutrient intake in the periconceptional period

Author(s): Snook Parrott M, Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Harger G, Markovic N, et al.

Early adversity, socioemotional development, and stress in urban 1-year-old children

Author(s): Palmer FB, Anand KJ, Graff JC, Murphy LE, Qu Y, et al.

Retention of under-represented minorities in drug abuse treatment studies

Author(s): Magruder KM, BichunOuyang, Miller S, Tilley BC

Human fMRI evidence for the neural correlates of preparatory set

Author(s): Connolly JD, Goodale MA, Menon RS, Munoz DP

Infant temperament and high-risk environment relate to behavior problems and language in toddlers

Author(s): Derauf C, LaGasse L, Smith L, Newman E, Shah R, et al.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of micronutrient intakes during pregnancy in developed countries

Author(s): Blumfield ML, Hure AJ, Macdonald-Wicks L, Smith R, Collins CE